Short Courses

Short courses in radiometry and allied topics

A number of short courses on radiometric topics have been developed primarily for SPIE- The International Optical Engineering Society, the Optical Society of America, and Optical Science and Engineering Short Courses, Inc. They include:

  • Practical Radiometry
  • Radiometry from A to B
  • Blackbodies, Graybodies and Realbodies
  • Radiometric Instruments and Measurements
  • Radiometric Calibration: Theory and Practice
  • Radiometric Calibration of Remote Sensors
  • Optical Radiation Detector Interfacing
  • Detector Interfacing and Radiometric Standards
  • Incoherent Sources and Beam Manipulation
  • Fundamentals of Radiometry: Calculations, Measurements and Calibration

Custom courses

Customized short courses, largely based upon those listed above, have been prepared and presented in several formats to the following organizations:

  • Eastman Kodak
  • ILC Technology
  • International Business Machines
  • Kelvin Corp.
  • Lockheed-Martin Corp.
  • UC Irvine
  • Utah State University- Space Dynamics Lab

VIDEO COURSE

A 5-hour video course entitled “Fundamentals of Radiometry: Calculations, Measurements and Calibration” was prepared for SPIE and aired on the NTU satellite television network.


CD-ROM COURSE

The video course entitled “Fundamentals of Radiometry: Calculations, Measurements and Calibration” is currently being reformatted for CD-ROM presentation. It will include both the audio and video portions of the taped course, and will also include quizzes (with answers) and a glossary. It isĀ available for purchase directly from SPIE.


Short courses

PRACTICAL RADIOMETRY

Course length: Two versions: One and one-half or two days

Intended audience: The course will be helpful to engineers and technicians who are required design radiometric systems and make radiometric measurements and calibrations.

Course description: A complete short course in radiometry, concentrating on practical considerations, with only as much theory as needed.

  • Blackbody radiation, emittance, Kirchhoffs law
  • Blackbody radiation simulators
  • Artificial sources- thermal and discharge
  • Natural sources and atmospheric transmission
  • Source selection criteria
  • Detectors of optical radiation
  • Thermal detectors and quantum detectors
  • Detector characteristics and interfaces
  • Imaging detectors
  • Detector accessories
  • Standards (sources,detectors)
  • The measurement equation
  • Radiation geometry
  • Projected area, solid angle, throughput
  • Concepts of radiance, lambertian sources and surfaces
  • Cosine third, cosine fourth laws
  • The integrating sphere
  • Radiometric calibration and normalization
  • Effects of polarization, coherence and gaussian beams
  • Radiation pyrometry
  • Radiometric instrument design
  • The spectroradiometry
  • Measurements of laser power and energy
  • Measurements of detector characteristics
  • Measurements of properties of materials (t, r, e)

RADIOMETRY FROM A TO B

Course length: Half day

Intended audience: The course will be helpful to engineers and technicians who are required to design and test radiometric systems and make radiometric measurements and calibrations.

Course description: The core of radiometry is the geometrical transfer of radiant energy from point A (the source) to point B (the receiver). It is necessarily mathematical in nature, but the task can be simplified through the use of reasonable approximations. This course deals with the methods of determining the propagation of optical radiant energy through simple and complex optical systems.

Course contents:

  • Ray and beam optics
  • Solid angle, projected solid angle
  • Radiance, power associated with a ray
  • The development of throughput
  • The invariance of radiance and throughput
  • Radiometric units derived from radiance (exitance, irradiance, intensity)
  • Isotropic and lambertian radiation
  • Configuration factors
  • Examples, tips, tricks and traps

BLACKBODIES, GRAYBODIES AND REALBODIES

Course length: Half-day

Intended audience: The course will be useful to those engineers and technicians who are required to purchase or design and build radiant energy sources for radiometric systems and calibration.

Course description: Radiant energy is generated by all matter at temperatures above 0K. This radiation can be considered a signal (desirable) or a noise (unwanted). A solid understanding of the characteristics of thermal radiation is essential to the design of infrared and radiometric instruments and systems. This course covers all of the essentials of thermal radiation sources, both artificial and natural, and includes luminescent sources for the visible and infrared as well.

Course contents:

  • Blackbody Radiation
  • Variations on a Theme by Planck
  • Emittance and Kirchhoffs’ Law
  • Blackbody Radiation Simulators
  • Radiation from Metals and Dielectrics
  • Practical Sources of Thermal Radiation
  • Natural Thermal Sources
  • Luminescent Sources
  • Mixed Sources

RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION: THEORY AND PRACTICE

RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION FOR REMOTE SENSORS

Course length: Full day (half-day available for T&P)

Intended audience: The course will be helpful to those engineers and technicians who are required to purchase or design and build radiometric systems and use them for radiometric measurements.

Course description: Radiometric instruments generate an output signal in response to optical radiant exchange with their surroundings. Calibration is the process of quantifying this signal in terms of radiometric units (e.g., watts). This course not only answers the question “Why calibrate?” but details current calibration methods and standards. The latest methods of bandwidth and field-of-view normalization are included along with a discussion of calibration error sources. Examples of real situations will be given.

Course contents:

  • Responsivity calibration methods
  • Spectroradiometric calibration
  • Bandwidth normalization
  • FOV calibration and normalization
  • Standard radiation sources
  • Standard detectors
  • Errors in radiometric calibration

RADIOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS

Course length: Half-day

Intended audience: The course will be helpful to those engineers and technicians who are required to purchase or design and build radiometric systems and use them for radiometric measurements.

Course description: A tutorial covering radiometric instrumentation and its applications. Radiometric measurements are among the most difficult to make, principally because of the number of variables involved and the wide range of measurement parameters. This course describes the numerous configurations of radiometric instruments and helps make the “Make or Buy?” decision. The measurement of several radiometric properties of interest are also described.

Course contents:

  • Measurement of active and passive radiation sources
  • Defining the instrument requirements
  • Radiometric configurations
  • Spectroradiometry: Dispersive vs. filter radiometry
  • Photometers and other specialized responses
  • Radiometric temperature measurements
  • Measurement of material properties
  • Transmittance
  • Reflectance
  • Emittance
  • Tips, tricks and traps

OPTICAL RADIATION DETECTOR INTERFACING

Course length: Half-day

Intended audience: The course will be helpful to those engineers and technicians who are required to design and build systems that include optical radiation detectors.

Course description: This tutorial covering the optical, thermal, mechanical and electronic interfaces from the detector to the radiometric system. The selection of a detector for inclusion in a radiometric system involves more than just picking one out of a catalog. To ensure a successful design, the engineer must consider the optical, thermal, mechanical and electronic interfaces between the detector and its immediate environment.

Course contents:

  • The purpose of interfacing
  • Optical interfaces – optimization of the S/N ratio
  • Mounting and positioning the detector
  • Controlling the detector temperature
  • Detector electrical characteristics
  • Selecting the right preamplifier
  • Signal processing to reduce noise
  • Putting it all together

OPTICAL RADIATION DETECTORS: VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED

Course length: Half-day

Intended audience: Engineers and technicians needing a brief introduction to properties and selection of optical radiation detectors.

Course description: This course describes the various types of quantum and pyroelectric optical radiation detectors, their properties (including noise), their uses and their electrical interfaces.

Course contents:

  • Introduction to detectors and terminology
  • Noise in detectors
  • Detection mechanisms and theories
  • Detector characteristics
  • Photoemissive
  • Photoconductive
  • Photovoltaic
  • Pyroelectric
  • Imaging detectors
  • Detector interfaces
  • Standard Detectors

DETECTOR INTERFACING AND RADIOMETRIC STANDARDS

Course length: Half-day

Course description: A dual-topic course. The first half covers all aspects of the interface between an optical radiation detector and an optical system. The secong half treats the most important aspect of a radiometric calibration, the standard against which the measurement is compared.

Course contents:

  • Interfaces
    • Optical
    • Thermal
    • Mechanical
    • Electronic
    • Detectors
    • Op-amps
    • Preamps
  • Radiometric Calibration Standards
    • Source standards
    • Thermal detector standards
    • Quantum detector standards
    • Use of quantum detector standards

INCOHERENT SOURCES AND BEAM MANIPULATION

Course length: Half-day

Course description: A dual-topic course. The first half is a brief tour through the range of incoherent sources, including artificial and natural. The second half treats the chopping, scanning and modulation of a light beam.

Course contents:

  • Incoherent sources:
    • Blackbody radiation (watts and photons)
    • Transmittance, reflectance, absorptance and emittance
    • Kirchhoffs’ law, blackbody radiation simulators
    • Radiation from metals and dielectrics; emittance
    • Natural radiation sources
    • Luminescent emission, arc sources
    • Fluorescent and electroluminescent sources
    • Solid-state sources – emitting diodes
    • Lamp radiometric and photometric standards
    • Radiation source selection criteria
  • Beam manipulation:
    • Scanning a beam, scanning an ifov
    • Reflective vs. refractive scanning
    • Scan patterns and geometries: digital vs. analog
    • Mechanical, acousto-optic, electro-optic & holographic scanners
    • Comparison of scanners
    • Modulating a beam
    • Mechanical, acousto-optical, electro-optical modulators
    • Comparison of modulators

FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIOMETRY:

Calculation, Measurement and Calibration

COURSE LENGTH: This course is available in three formats. The first is a five-hour video available from SPIE. The second is an adaptation using slightly expanded notes to fill the need for a full day on-site course. Call for details. The third is a CD-ROM adaptation, also available from SPIE.

COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course will present the fundamental concepts of radiometry, the measurement of optical radiant energy, including current nomenclature and terminology. The basics of transfer of radiant energy from extended and point sources are covered in detail, with numerous examples of radiometric calculations. The various methods and configurations for conducting radiometric measurements and calibrations are explored. Current radiometric standards and their usage are described. There are many pitfalls that are encountered during the conduct of measurement and calibration activities; these will be outlined along with their cure and avoidance.

BENEFITS: After completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Understand the complex terminology of radiometry
  • Calculate the irradiance and power on a focal plane from near and distant point and extended sources
  • Select appropriate measurement and calibration configurations
  • Choose pertinent radiometric standards
  • Identify systematic error sources and mitigate their effects

INTENDED AUDIENCE: This course is directed towards engineers and technicians who are responsible for radiometric calculations, measurements and calibration.

COURSE OUTLINE AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Session 1. – Introduction

  • Understand radiometric terminology
  • Understand areas and solid angles
  • Comprehend radiance and throughput

Session 2. – Radiative Transfer

  • Integrate radiometric quantities from radiance
  • Apply radiative transfer laws configuration factors
  • Use the basic equations of transfer
  • Understand conceptual examples
  • Understand practical examples

Session 3. – Measurement of Optical Radiation

  • Apply the measurement equation
  • Predict and calculate errors in radiometric measurements
  • Understand and select measurement and calibration configurations
  • Consider temporal factors – determine appropriate use of choppers
  • Compare extended vs. point source measurements

Session 4. – Radiometric Calibration

  • Understand a comprehensive calibration philosophy and traceability
  • Select among source standards and receiver standards
  • Calibrate a radiometer
  • List the state-of-the-art: present and future

Session 5. – Special Problems and Solutions

  • Appreciate effects of gaussian beams and coherence
  • Anticipate polarization effects
  • Predict diffraction effects
  • Appreciate aberration effects and atmospherics